Greece

GREECE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.Introduction

2.“Turkey is an integral part of our region”

3.Cyprus’ Membership is the beginning of a new effort to reunify the island

4.The Tragic Earthquakes

5.Greeks discovered that they have an important role to play in relation to the people of Turkey

6.Eurovision Song Contest and Conformable Culture Between Turkey and Greece

7.“Common Roots, Common Tastes, Common Future” Project Between Turkey-Greece
7.1.Regional Approach
7.2.Both parties are ready and willing

8.Question Marks

9.Bilateral Business, Trade, Tourism and Investment Relations
9.1.Greek-Turkish relations enter new “orbit”
9.2.Introduction by INV International Ltd.’s Director

10.Greek-Turkish Environmental Relations

11.Greece Supports Turkey’s European Orientation

12.Why Greece Supports Turkey’s European Future? (A Small Summary)

TERM PAPER
INTRODUCTION
Relationships between Greece and Turkey have always been a problem. The world knows that Greece and Turkey were incompatible neighbors. Relations between Greece and Turkey seem interesting for the world. Many wars and diplomatic crisis happened between Turkey and Greece in the history. However, the relationship between these countries isn’t like the old days any more. Because we see a peace and a good relationship has been started between Turkey and Greece. Nobody thought that Greece would support Turkey’s European Future. I think we are living an interesting period. Because it is a fact that Greece changed her attitude to Turkey under current conditions, even the negative events occurred in the history. So, in this period, there is a specific question that why Greece supports Turkey’s European future? Why do Greeks believe that the climate in their relations with Turkey has certainly improved? Why does Greece approach Turkey? My aim is to search, to discuss and to find this question’s (Why does Greece support Turkey’s European Future?) answer. I will find this question’s answer and search about the affirmative buildups of the relationships between Turkey and Greece. I will focus on the question by strengthening with affirmative buildups of near retrospection and present.
For example, there are new co-operations between Turkey and Greece. They co-operate each other in trade, tourism, security, illegal immigration, energy, environment, education and supports each other’s international relations, Eurovision marks, earthquakes, etc. Why do they choose to co-operate and support each other? Do they need this? Is this obligation or gut? Frosty or necessity? Good or bad? Useful or deleterious? These questions are still question mark in minds. We will see these relations’ benefits in the next future. This term-paper can give you an idea about those. At least, you can see that there is a positive and strange relationship between Turkey and Greece after reading this term-paper. This term-paper is prepared by searching actual relationships between Turkey and Greece. As, our Prime Minister said, both countries don’t want the history to repeat itself and want much better future ever before. Maybe, the biggest reason Greece wants Turkey in the EU is that. Who knows?

“TURKEY IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF OUR REGION”
Greeks who believe that Turkey, which is an integral part of their region emphasizes that their country is the only EU member in this region. Even further increased Greece’s burden of responsibility in today’s reunited Europe because the latest EU enlargement has shifted the focus to the East. Turkey’s traditional enemy, Greece, has by now practically become a cheerleader for Ankara’s EU membership. Greeks say that they support the reforms of Turkey. Because according to them any given country in the world would prefer a stable and prosperous neighbor to an uncertain one. According to Athens, it is better to have Turkey in the club than outside. “We simply believe that if and when [Turkey] joins the European Union it will be obliged to observe these rules and values. This will by itself resolve most of our problems.” (http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-129678-16&type=LinksDossier [29 November 2004 Monday, 13:20:27]) said former Greek Defense Minister Yannos Papantoniou.
Turkey’s European orientation has unleashed forces of reform and moderation. It has started to transform Turkish society; and with it, it has put reins to the older establishment. The pace of its progress towards Europe depends primarily on its own achievements. There have been important milestones.

CYPRUS’ MEMBERSHIP IS THE BEGINNIG OF A NEW EFFORT TO REUNIFY THE ISLAND
On May the 1st, Cyprus acceded to the European Union. Greeks believe that this cannot be the end of the road for the Turkish-Cypriot community. According to Greeks, it certainly is the beginning of a new effort to reunify the island. The prospect of EU membership for the Republic of Cyprus, together with the candidate status of Turkey, has created a new regional dynamic. This dynamic can and must produce the osmosis of interests that will spur a resolution to the Cyprus problem.

THE TRAGIC EARTQUAKES
Although a constructive dialogue had already begun between Greece and Turkey, even before the Kosovo crisis brought us closer through joint humanitarian operations, the tragic earthquakes that shook both countries created further momentum for our nascent relationship. Through moving expressions of solidarity, the citizens of Greece and Turkey effectively coined a new political term: ‘seismic diplomacy’. The pain and sorrow from the lethal earthquakes that struck both countries in August and September 1999 became fertile ground for the emergence of a strong feeling of solidarity among the Greek and Turkish peoples. It was a lot more than a humanitarian reaction, which sent, in fact, a clear political message. It refuted the myth, stubbornly promoted, especially by the Turkish-Cypriot leadership that Greeks and Turks are “perennial enemies” unable to live together. It is in fact that same leadership which has constantly raised artificial barriers hindering contacts between citizens from the two communities. The people have torn down this myth through their own diplomacy, which sent a message of peace and cooperation, dispelling the misunderstandings of the past.
I remember that both countries tried to help each other and shared the sorrow in 1999. I think this is one of the biggest reasons of Greece’s support of Turkey’s EU membership. Both countries and peoples responded generously to the other’s need, helping turn around official perceptions that rapprochement was politically too risky. Since that time, Greek and Turkish Foreign Ministers George Papandreou and İsmail Cem (and their respective successors Petros Molyviatis and Abdullah Gül) have steadily increased the quantity and quality of bilateral exchanges, both official and unofficial.

GREEKS DISCOVERED THAT THEY HAVE AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY IN RELATION TO THE PEOPLE OF TURKEY
As Greek-Turkish rapprochement gathered steam, ordinary Greeks discovered that they have an important role to play in relation to the people of Turkey, to the citizens of other Balkan nations, and of Europe as a whole.
Greece firmly believes that Europe has much to gain from accepting a European Turkey. On its road to the EU, both Turkey and Greece, the members of the EU, have a new responsibility to ensure that Turkey assimilates the basic practices and institutions that define any modern democracy. Helsinki did not signal the end of Greece’s efforts: on the contrary, it represents the starting point for new, equally bold, initiatives. Greece and Turkey have now embarked on a process of cooperation in various fields of common interest, such as trade, tourism, security, illegal immigration, energy, education and the environment. These areas of cooperation build confidence and create new opportunities for Greeks to work together, for their collective good. Of course, our problems have not disappeared overnight. However, Greeks claim that they are willing to share their experience of regional problems and EU affairs, in order to help Turkey achieve European standards and practices quickly. (http://www.greece.gr/POLITICS/EuropeanUnion/GapGreekTurkishOpEd.stm [29 November 2004 Monday, 13:25:47])

EUROVISION SONG CONTEST AND CONFORMABLE CULTURE BETWEEN TURKEY AND GREECE
Eurovision which is an important contest for Turkey since 1970s is mostly a political contest, because usually countries vote for the country which seems sympathetic and close for them. Of course, the music is not an ineffectual element. However, it is a fact that Turkey had gained one of the worst grades until 1997 (Şebnem Paker – Dinle. She made Turkey the third winner of Eurovision for the first time). In fact, Turkey had sent her best singers with hopes to Eurovision, for example; Mazhar Fuat Özkan, Ajda Pekkan, Kayahan, Candan Erçetin, İzel. However, Turkey had lost every year. Turkish people thought that this was because of European countries hated Turkey, especially Greece. So Turkish people gave the biggest importance to Greece’s vote. In 2003, Sertab Erener, who is the Turkish diva of pop music, changed Turkey’s Eurovision destiny. She attended Eurovision contest with an oriental pop song which is called “Everyway That I Can” and an ethnic dance in 2003. Turkey believed that there weren’t any reasons for Sertab Erener’s becoming the winner of Eurovision 2003, because she was one of the biggest pop icons in Turkey. She even had made a duet with Ricky Martin in 1999. Turkish people felt the same excitement as they sent Semiha Yankı who is the first Turkish participant of Eurovision in 1970s. The biggest question was how much points Greece would give. Or would they give a point to Turkey?
In the contest of 2003, Turkish people were surprised and became happy. Because it was the first time Turkey became the champion of Eurovision. This was a big victory for the Turkish people and the vote of Greece made Turkish people surprised, because Greece gave its complete point to Sertab Erener who was representing Turkey. If Greek people didn’t vote for Turkey, Sertab Erener wouldn’t become the winner of Eurovision. This buildup became a real advantage for Turkey. Even Tayyip Erdoğan said that Sertab Erener’s Eurovision victory expedited his international relationships. The statement of him shows how Eurovision is important for European politics. Greece and Turkey were approached by this Eurovision victory. The Turkish media and the Greek media emphasized Greece’s points. Eurovision 2003 entered Turkish and Greek history, because it became one of the biggest affirmative buildups between Greece and Turkey. Greek people already had known and liked Sertab Erener, because she had made a duet (the song’s name was “Aşk – Fos – Love”) with Greek pop diva (she also attended Eurovision 2003, but she lost the contest) Mando in 2000.
In the fallowing year, 2004, Eurovision was represented in Turkey because of Sertab Erener’s victory. This was a big chance to make Turkey’s advertisement to European countries. Greece sent Turkey one of her biggest male singers Sakis. The reason of sending Sakis to represent Greece wasn’t that he is Ricky Martin or Tarkan of Greece. The reason was that Sakis was a Turkey-lover person. Sakis was a peaceful rod to Turkey. Turkey was ready to take this peaceful rod, because Eurovision was also a big chance to show the world and EU that Turkey is a peaceful country. Turkey chose one of the biggest Turkish rock groups Athena to represent Turkey. Athena was a successful music group, but it was a fact that the chance for winning Eurovision again was a lowly possibility even most of people thought that the best song was Athena’s, because in the history of Eurovision, there were rare countries which won Eurovision one after the other year. Both Turkey and Greece thought that Greek singer Sakis would win Eurovision 2004. Both countries wanted Sakis to win, because Turkey also loved Sakis. Sakis was a Turkey-lover singer. He had always visited Turkey and said how much he had loved Turkish people. For example, in 1990s, Sakis and Burak Kut, who was one of the biggest Turkish pop stars in 1990s, had given concerts in Cyprus together to give peace in Cyprus and between Turkey and Greece. This had been one of the first affirmative buildups between Greece and Turkey; even they had been enemy in 1990s. Sakis had been a big star in 1990s, too. Burak Kut isn’t a big pop star now any more. However, in 1990s, Kut was so successful that he was the only rival to Tarkan. The two singers had toured Cyprus and had made Turkish and Greek media to show interest to peace. Turkish people didn’t forget this and gave importance to Sakis in Eurovision 2004. For example, when Greece gained higher marks in this contest, hostess of Eurovision 2004 Meltem Cumbul always said “Congratulations Sakis! Congratulations Greece!” even she didn’t always say the same for other countries. However, in the contest, Ruslana who is also a Turkey-lover person had a wonderful hit song called “Wild Dances” and succeed in cerography and costumes. Ruslana who was representing Ukraine did the same effect as Sertab Erener did in 2003 and became the champion of Eurovision 2004. Sakis who was representing Greece with “Shake It” became the third and Athena who was representing Turkey with “For Real” became the fourth. After all, Eurovision 2004 made a peaceful link between Turkey and Greece like Eurovision 2003. Both countries gave high votes to each other again. These votes were cultural, political and peaceful.
In fact, Eurovision, Sertab Erener-Mando co-operation or Sakis-Burak Kut co-operation isn’t the only thing that proves there is a cultural link between Greece and Turkey. I think both countries’ musical and cultural styles are alike to each other. We listen to same melodies. Yes, the same melodies… Turkish musicians steal or take with permission the Greek songs. This is the same as the Greek musicians… They also steal or take with permission the Turkish songs. So we listen to the same melodies even we know or don’t know. We cry and dance with the same melodies. Both countries have alike dances, too. Their sirtaki is like our halay. Our buildings are analogical. These are proofs that both countries have alike culture, because we are neighbors. I remember a television program which I watched a couple of years ago. I can’t remember the channel. Interviewers were asking questions to Greek people about Turkish people and their feasible membership of the EU. They usually replied that we had alike cultures and they supported Turkey’s European Union membership because of that reason. In that program, I have also noticed that most of them look like Turkish people. I think this is because we are neighbors. They should have noticed this likeness, too, because they said that Turkey should join the EU because of their culture is more similar to Turkish culture than the other members of European Union in that program.
This likeness has also been a reason for love between Greek and Turkish juveniles. These love stories have been material for Turkish and Greek movies and TV series, too. I can remind you some examples from Turkish series; Yabancı Damat, Yılan Hikayesi, Hayat Bilgisi, etc.

‘COMMON ROOTS, COMMON TASTES, COMMON FUTURE’ PROJECT BETWEEN TURKEY-GREECE
Greece and Turkey started to some co-operations, as I mentioned before. One of the co-operations which occurred between Turkey and Greece is tourism. Why do they co-operate about tourism? I think its reason is that we are neighbors. We are next to each other, and our climate, places, culture are alike to each other. For example, our leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s house where he was born in is in Selanik which is in Greece. First of all, I am sure that we are making co-operation about Atatürk’s house. Many tourists of Turkey, Greece and other countries visit Atatürk’s first house in Selanik and there are some special objects of Atatürk, there. Greeks keep this house and Atatürk’s objects like a museum and automatically Turkish government supports Greece’s tourism by this way, because Atatürk and his house are very important for Turkish people.
Look at historical movies like Troy (Brad Pitt, Eric Bana, and Orlando Bloom) and Alexander the Great (Colin Farrell, Angelia Jolie)… These historical movies are a proof that Greece and Turkey have the same history mythologically, historically and geographically. These movies also showed Turkey and Greece have the same destiny in the history. For example, if you are interested in mythology and want to search for this and see places which are important for the history of mythology, then you will have to visit both countries. Latterly, the world is interested in mythology and this made the world contribute Greece and Turkey’s tourism.
Let me remind you an official agreement between Turkey and Greece in Altınoluk Municipality, in Balıkesir Edremit from Turkey. AENAL Development company affiliated to Lesvos (an island) Governorship from Greece and DIALOGOS research institute jointly launched a tourism project entitled ‘Common Roots, Common Tastes, Common Future’ is in March 2004. The EU supported the tourism project with 50 thousand Euros. The project aims to start concrete cooperation between tourism operators and local governments from both sides and thus contribute to regional tourism activities. Exandas Consultancy, which has offices in Turkey and Greece, provides the technical consultancy service to the project.
The history of relations between the Altınoluk Municipality and Lesvos (Mitillini) started when a twin town agreement was reached with the island’s Gera Municipality. The positive approach of Lesvos Governor Pavlos Vogiatzis, who used to be the then Mayor of Gera, and Altınoluk Mayor İsmail Aynur founded the base of cooperation that is improving among the region’s tourism operators today.

 

Regional Approach
The ‘Common Roots, Common Tastes, Common Future’ project, prepared within the framework of EU Regional Approach, aims to bring together tourism operators and local governments from both countries and enable them to discuss regional issues regarding tourism and establish joint initiatives in order to find common solutions to their issues.
The following are among targets of the project: To improve the regional tourism standards, market local traditional products, increase the tourist mobility between the two sides, start networking activities, prepare joint tourism packages and enter international markets together. Another aim is to expand the project in time to cover all resorts in the Gulf of Edremit and all neighboring islands around Lesvos.

Both parties are ready and willing
It was clearly understood that both parties were willing and in need of this cooperation during contacts. The Turkish delegation, which went to Lesvos (Mitillini), Greece to meet tourism operators on July 23-25, was welcomed and put up by Lesvos Governorship.
During their visit that lasted 3 days, the Turkish delegation visited the Mitillini Chamber of Commerce, Mayors of Gera, Molivos and Polihnitos, Union of Tourism Travel Agencies, Hotel Operators Union and owners of various touristy businesses. Altınoluk Mayor and City Council Members, Chairman of Edremit Chamber of Commerce, Director of Balıkesir Tourism Department, Professors from Balıkesir University Vocational College of Tourism, hotel, restaurant and travel agency owners from Altınoluk and Akçay were on the delegation.
Lesvos Governorship aims to introduce the tourism facilities in Altınoluk and Gulf of Edremit at the international tourism fairs he will attend this year. Turkish hotel operators prepared package tour programmes during training courses held in the scope of the common tourism project and presented them to Mitillini.
Another concrete result of the project was the launch of Clustering among tourism operators in Altınoluk. The hotel and restaurant owners from Altınoluk got organized and decided to work together for better quality and marketing.
Upon the initiative of the Union of Lesvos Hotel Operators, tourism operators and travel agencies from Lesvos visited Altınoluk in November 2004, too and continued with meetings. (http://www.abinfoturk.net/news/news.asp?lang=1&mnID=15&ord=55&item=19410&subOrd=11 [29 November 2004 Monday, 13:29:53])

QUESTION MARKS
Of, course; there are still question marks between Turkish people. For example, as I said in my presentation about this topic, one of the Greece’s aims can be to control Turkey which they think is still a threat for them. The reason is very simple. If Turkey is out of the European Union, this will be a threat for them, because they won’t know what Turkey is planning and this won’t give an idea to Greeks. However, if Turkey joins the European Union, they will feel comfortable even Turkey is their neighbor, because the relations between them will be much better than ever and Greece will find a way to control Turkey because of European Union’s criterias and rules. Greece will be old-timer member of the European Union, when Turkey joins the EU. What do you think about these two words; senior and incipient? What would you choose? Of course, the senior… I think some Greeks think that they will be different to the EU’s eye, when Turkey joins the EU, because they are senior, we will be incipient. However, this idea doesn’t confute that the relationship between Turkey and Greece is strengthened by their people, business-men and politicians in the present.

BILATERAL BUSINESS, TRADE, TOURISM AND INVESTMENT RELATIONS
Greek-Turkish relations enter new ‘orbit’… “Our trade and tourism ties are growing… What Turkey and Greece have achieved in recent years is indeed impressive! Turkey and Greece should continue to strive for new horizons in their relations, to the benefit of their peoples and democracies… Turkish-Greek partnership will not only benefit the two countries and their peoples, but it will also serve as an element of peace and stability both in our region and Europe at large.” — Abdullah Gül, Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Turkey, writing in To Vima of October 21, 2003 As you understand by this statement, our Foreign Minister Abdullah Gül looks affirmative to the relations between Greece and Turkey. I think this statement is very important for our international relations, because as you like or dislike, Gül is our Foreign Policy Secretary and looks for relations between other countries and Turkey. So, this statement can be a proof of the relations between Greece and Turkey’s climate is certainly improved. So, what about Greece’s Foreign Minister Papandreou? Does he think the same? The answer is below.
“In this long path of five years [as Greece’s Foreign Minister (1999-2004)], in the European Union, I think that my country, Greece, has had an important role to play. We are proud of our decision in Helsinki, which helped both to change the relations between the European Union and Turkey, but also helped Cyprus become a member… By the end of the year [2004], we will also be making a very important decision and Greece would very much like to see it as a positive decision, and that’s on Turkey…” — George A. Papandreou, former Foreign Minister of Greece, during his farewell press conference in Brussels on January 26, 2004
As you read above, Greece’s Foreign Minister George A. Papandreou looks affirmative to the relations between Greece and Turkey, too. This is a proof that Greece supports Turkey’s European future.
“The two great national leaders [Greek and Turkish statesmen Eleftherios Venizelos and Kemal Atatürk], on the basis of common sense and wisdom, contributed to Greek-Turkish co-operation and friendship which continued and flourished for some years… We do not want the next generations to live as we have lived… peace and love are deeply consolidated in the sentiments of the two peoples.” — Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Prime Minister of Turkey, speaking at a joint press conference [held by Mr. Costas Karamanlis, the Greek Prime Minister, and his visiting Turkish counterpart] in Athens on May 7, 2004 As you see above, our Prime Minister Erdoğan supports the relations between Turkey and Greece by supporting his ideas with the history of Greece and Turkey. He says he doesn’t want next generations to live as we have lived. It seems, he wants peace and love between two states. “We confirmed our coincidence of views with respect to the new ‘orbit’ into which Greek-Turkish relations have entered and ascertained with satisfaction the progress they are making.” — Dr. Costas Karamanlis, the Greek Prime Minister, speaking to reporters on May 7, 2004 after his meeting with the Turkish Prime Minister, who arrived in Athens for an official visit — the first by a Turkish premier since 1988 — heading a large delegation of government officials, entrepreneurs and media. Addressing this Turkish delegation, the Greek Prime Minister said that his country remains steadfastly adhered to the target of the reunification of Cyprus “so that Greek-Cypriots and Turkish-Cypriots together can enjoy the benefits of participation in the European Union.”
“Unless something bizarre or peculiar should happen before December [2004], the Greek government will say ‘yes’ to Turkey because we believe that this will make our part of the world a European neighbourhood, because it is good for the Turkish people and for Turkey’s neighbours, who will feel that their problems can be solved more quickly, more easily, in a more European way.” — Yiannis Valinakis, Deputy Foreign Minister of Greece, speaking to NTV, the Turkish television channel, on May 8, 2004.
I think I should consider to this statement, because it is the most open statement by a Greek politician that Greece would say “yes” to Turkey. I already remember a photo of a Greek delegate of EU holding a sign “Yes” about membership of Turkey. Valinakis, gave one of the peace sticks to Turkey by giving this statement to a Turkish Channel; NTV.

Introduction by INV International Ltd.’s director
There is an introduction by INV (Invest in Greece) International Ltd.’s director Peter Michel Heilmann and I saw that this letter is important to understand how business, trade, tourism and investment relations between Greece and Turkey have improved. So, I want to share this letter which there are information about the economic relations between Turkey and Greece.

“Dear INVgr subscribers and partners,
In January 2002 INV International Ltd. launched a unique new section, which aims to promote and strengthen business, trade, tourism and investment relations between Greece and Turkey.
According to Dr. Costas Karamanlis, the Greek Prime Minister, 77 Greek companies are currently operating in Turkey, with Greek investments representing 3.2% of total foreign direct investment (FDI) in Greece’s neighbouring country. Business between Greece and Turkey has gained impetus due to an improvement in political ties over the last five years, bringing a fivefold increase in the volume of two-way trade. A total of 25 bilateral agreements have been signed between the two countries over the past five years. Greece’s trade deficit with Turkey jumped 71.7% in 2003 compared with the previous year, totaling USD 477.19 million. Turkey’s exports to Greece rose by 52.8% last year to USD 902.64 million, while Greek exports to Turkey rose 36.16% to USD 425.45 million. Bilateral trade exceeded USD 1.3 billion in 2003, up 47.1% from the previous year and sharply up from EUR 200 million in 1999. “We can soon raise this to EUR 5 billion,” Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the Turkish Prime Minister, said at a luncheon hosted by the Greek-Turkish Business Forum in Athens on May 7th, 2004. It was the first official visit by a Turkish Prime Minister since 1988.
We warmly welcome you to lend your support, share with us your feedback, send us your articles, company news or viewpoint, or simply communicate with us by E-mail.

Sincere regards,
Peter Michel Heilmann
Director
INV International Ltd.
United Kingdom “

INVgolf has a vision to create the world’s most influential golf development and investment forum. The next opportunity to experience it is the INVgolf Investment Forum 2005 in Belek, Antalya, Turkey, April 23 & 24, 2005.

GREEK-TURKISH ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONS
In an initiative funded by the Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works [the Bilateral Development Cooperation and Assistance Programme], the Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal (MOm) has embarked on a cooperative venture with its Turkish counterpart, the Underwater Research Society – Mediterranean Seal Research Group (SAD-AFAG).
The two organizations plan to learn from each other’s experiences in science, conservation and management through project exchange visits, and share information on monk seal sightings. The project was formally announced on World Environment Day (June 5th, 2001) during the inauguration of the National Centre for the Environment and Sustainable Development in Athens. In July 2001, a six-strong SAD-AFAG team made its way to Alonissos for an introduction to monk seal conservation activities in the Northern Sporades Marine Park. MOm biologists and staff members made their reciprocal trip to Turkey in September, visiting the Foça Specially Protected Area and the Karaburun Peninsula.
The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is among the rarest and one of the six most threatened mammal species of the world. According to recent estimates, there are about 300 monk seals in the Mediterranean, almost all occurring in the eastern part.  Monk seals favour areas with caves where they live and breed, and also need a healthy marine environment. In recent years, monk seals have suffered from a loss of habitat due to urbanization, development of secondary homes, and from mass tourism. Their marine environment has been threatened by pollution and their food source by over fishing. The survival of the monk seal is, thus, intricately linked with the conservation of a healthy marine and coastal environment.
Monk seals also face accidental deaths from entanglement in fishing nets and deliberate killing by fishermen who believe that monk seals are the cause of declining fish stocks and a reduced income. WWF is supporting monk seal conservation through its local partner, the Underwater Research Society – Mediterranean Seal Research Group (SAD-AFAG), in three sites along the Turkish coast — Foça and Karaburun in the Aegean and the Cilician coast in the Mediterranean.
(http://www.invgr.com/invgt.htm [02 February 2005 Wednesday, 11:46:26])

GREECE SUPPORTS TURKEY’S EUROPEAN ORIENTATION
According to Greeks, if the EU intends to make a definitive contribution to international relations in the 21st century, Cyprus presents the ultimate challenge.
Since Turkey belongs to the wider European region, it goes without saying that it will also benefit from the policy that Greece applies to the whole region. Greece seems determined to welcome any gesture on the part of Turkey that might contribute to the easing of Greek-Turkish tensions. Furthermore, she would appreciate initiatives designed to improve bilateral relations within the framework of International Law and International Agreements, which constitute a fundamental basis for honest and constructive relations.
The policy chosen by Greece aims at examining these issues within a different framework: that of the European Union, based on Turkey’s desire to approach the EU and European structures. Greece supports Turkey’s European orientation. At the same time, she underlines that in order to achieve her goal; Turkey will have to comply with the requirements set for all candidate countries. This procedure, required by EU rules, will contribute to the resolution of all issues currently casting shadows over Greek-Turkish relations. Furthermore, it encourages the Union and the West as a whole, to re-evaluate their position and confront their responsibilities in the region. Within the EU, Greece has made it clear that there is room for all and all countries are welcome, provided that the European Community acquis is respected.
Greece has endorsed and supported Turkey’s bid for candidacy to the European Union since the Helsinki EU Summit in 1999. Greece’s advocacy was a key element of the EU’s decision at the 2002 Copenhagen Summit: that if the European Council in December 2004 decides that Turkey has met certain criteria on economic and political reform and has made progress on the resolution of regional disputes, “the EU will open negotiations without delay.” Despite continuing disagreements with Ankara over Cyprus and the Aegean, Greek opinion leaders across the political spectrum are convinced that Greece’s long-term interests are best served by Turkey’s successfully fulfilling the requirements for European Union membership. (http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3395.htm [29 November 2004 Monday, 13:29:43])
In conclusion, the Greek approach aimed at bringing into the framework of Euro-Turkish relations problems like the Cyprus Question (regarding the island’s accession as well as the political problem) and issues regarding Greek-Turkish relations, as well as questions such as human and minority rights and democratic reforms within Turkey. Turkey’s attempt to confront all these issues is to be monitored by the appropriate EU mechanisms within a strict timetable.

WHY GREECE SUPPORTS TURKEY’S EUROPEAN FUTURE? (A SMALL SUMMARY)
–> “Turkey is an integral part of our region”
–> Any given country in the world would prefer a stable and prosperous neighbor to an uncertain one
–> “It is better to have Turkey in the club than outside.”
–> Cyprus’ membership is the beginning of a new effort to reunify the island.
–> The tragic earthquakes that shook both countries created further momentum for their nascent relationship.
–> Greeks discovered that they have an important role to play in relation to the people of Turkey.
–> Eurovision 2003 and 2004 made a peaceful link between Turkey and Greece.
–> Both countries noticed that their culture is similar to each other.
–> Greece and Turkey have now embarked on a process of cooperation in various fields of common interest, such as

a) Trade
b) Tourism
c) Security
d) Illegal immigration
e) Energy
f) The environment.
g) Education

BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.mfa.gr/greek/foreign_policy/usa_canada/CouncilonForeignRelations.html (29 November 2004 Monday, 13:26:34)
http://www.abinfoturk.net/news/news.asp?lang=1&mnID=15&ord=55&item=19410&subOrd=11 (29 November 2004 Monday, 13:29:53)
http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-129678-16&type=LinksDossier (29 November 2004 Monday, 13:20:27)
http://www.greece.gr/POLITICS/EuropeanUnion/GapGreekTurkishOpEd.stm (29 November 2004 Monday, 13:25:47)
http://media.papandreou.gr/media/content/articlepage.aspx?articleid=467&language=0 (29 November 2004 Monday, 13:29:30)
http://www.greekembassy.org/Embassy/content/en/Article.aspx?office=1&folder=43&article=75 (29 November 2004 Monday, 13:20:15)
http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3395.htm (29 November 2004 Monday, 13:29:43)
http://www.invgr.com/invgt.htm (02 February 2005 Wednesday, 11:46:26)

PRESENTATION
My topic is why Greece supports Turkey’s European future. However, first of all, let me remind you the problems between Turkey&Greece occured in the history. You already know them, but before my topic, we have to remember these problems.

PROBLEMS BETWEEN TURKEY&GREECE
1)Territorial Problems
2)Air Space
3)Territorial Waters
4)Continental Shelf
5)Minorities

The issue of the right to control the airspace over the Aegean appears similarly intractable. Greece, which was granted control of air and sea operations over the entire Aegean region by various NATO agreements, closed the Aegean air corridors during the 1974 Cyprus crisis and only reopened them early in 1980 as part of the compromise arrangement for Greek reintegration into NATO. Disputes over the median line dividing the Aegean into approximately equal sectors of responsibility remain unresolved. In addition, Turkey refuses to recognize the ten-mile territorial air limit decreed by Greece in 1931; this line extends from the coast of Greece’s mainland as well as from its islands. These unresolved issues contribute to the tensions over Cyprus and mineral exploration rights in the Aegean Sea.
Beginning in 1989, dramatic political developments in Eastern Europe and the Middle East caused Turkey and Greece to focus their attention beyond the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
The future of the divided island of  Cyprus has been a major moot point. A special problem for the EU is the political context of Cyprus. There are practically no economic obstacles to its membership, but the unsolved conflict between Greece and Turkey does not make a solution easier. Greece hopes that admission to the EU would lead to the island’s reunification but Turkey, until now an unlucky candidate for EU membership, continues to support the Turkish Cypriot government, which has never been recognised by the international community. Since both sides show no intention to accept any compromise, the outcome looks rather uncertain. Turkey has also expressed a negative view on cooperation between NATO and the European Intervention Force – another form of pressure on the EU.
Greeks believe that the climate in their relations with Turkey has certainly improved.
Greeks who believe that Turkey, which is an integral part of their region emphasizes that their country is the only EU member in this region. Even further increased Greece’s burden of responsibility in today’s reunited Europe because the latest EU enlargement has shifted the focus to the East. Turkey’s traditional enemy,  Greece , has by now practically become a cheerleader for Ankara’s EU membership. Greeks say that they support the reforms of Turkey. Because according to them any given country in the world would prefer a stable and prosperous neighbor to an uncertain one. According to Athens, it is better to have Turkey in the club than outside. “We simply believe that if and when [Turkey] joins the European Union it will be obliged to observe these rules and values. This will by itself resolve most of our problems,” said former Greek Defence Minister Yannos Papantoniou. Turkey’s European orientation has unleashed forces of reform and moderation. It has started to transform Turkish society; and with it, it has put reins to the older establishment. The pace of its progress towards Europe depends primarily on its own achievements. There have been important milestones. On May the 1st, Cyprus acceded to the European Union. Greeks believe that this cannot be the end of the road for the Turkish-Cypriot community. According to Greeks, it certainly is the beginning of a new effort to reunify the island. The prospect of EU membership for the Republic of Cyprus, together with the candidate status of Turkey, has created a new regional dynamic. This dynamic can and must produce the osmosis of interests that will spur a resolution to the Cyprus problem.
Although a constructive dialogue had already begun between Greece and Turkey, even before the Kosovo crisis brought us closer through joint humanitarian operations, the tragic earthquakes that shook both countries created further momentum for our nascent relationship. Through moving expressions of solidarity, the citizens of Greece and Turkey effectively coined a new political term: ‘seismic diplomacy’ . The pain and sorrow from the lethal earthquakes that struck both countries in August and September 1999 became fertile ground for the emergence of a strong feeling of solidarity among the Greek and Turkish peoples. It was a lot more than a humanitarian reaction, which sent, in fact, a clear political message. It refuted the myth, stubbornly promoted, especially by the Turkish-Cypriot leadership that Greeks and Turks are “perennial enemies” unable to live together. It is in fact that same leadership which has constantly raised artificial barriers hindering contacts between citizens from the two communities. The people have torn down this myth through their own diplomacy, which sent a message of peace and cooperation, dispelling the misunderstandings of the past.
As Greek-Turkish rapprochement gathered steam, ordinary Greeks discovered that they have an important role to play in relation to the people of Turkey, to the citizens of other Balkan nations, and of Europe as a whole.
Greece firmly believes that Europe has much to gain from accepting a European Turkey. On its road to the EU, both Turkey and Greece, the members of the EU, have a new responsibility to ensure that Turkey assimilates the basic practices and institutions that define any modern democracy. Helsinki did not signal the end of Greece’s efforts: on the contrary, it represents the starting point for new, equally bold, initiatives. Greece and Turkey have now embarked on a process of cooperation in various fields of common interest, such as trade, tourism, security, illegal immigration, energy, and the environment. These areas of cooperation build confidence and create new opportunities for Greeks to work together, for their collective good. Of course, our problems have not disappeared overnight. However, Greeks claim that they are willing to share their experience of regional problems and EU affairs, in order to help Turkey achieve European standards and practices quickly. According to Greeks, if the EU intends to make a definitive contribution to international relations in the 21st century, Cyprus presents the ultimate challenge.
Since Turkey belongs to the wider European region, it goes without saying that it will also benefit from the policy that Greece applies to the whole region. Greece seems determined to welcome any gesture on the part of Turkey that might contribute to the easing of Greek-Turkish tensions. Furthermore, she would appreciate initiatives designed to improve bilateral relations within the framework of International Law and International Agreements, which constitute a fundamental basis for honest and constructive relations.
The policy chosen by Greece aims at examining these issues within a different framework: that of the European Union, based on Turkey’s desire to approach the EU and European structures. Greece supports Turkey’s European orientation. At the same time, she underlines that in order to achieve her goal, Turkey will have to comply with the requirements set for all candidate countries. This procedure, required by EU rules, will contribute to the resolution of all issues currently casting shadows over Greek-Turkish relations. Furthermore, it encourages the Union and the West as a whole, to re-evaluate their position and confront their responsibilities in the region. Within the EU, Greece has made it clear that there is room for all and all countries are welcome, provided that the European Community acquis is respected.
Greece has endorsed and supported Turkey’s bid for candidacy to the European Union since the Helsinki EU Summit in 1999. Greece’s advocacy was a key element of the EU’s decision at the 2002 Copenhagen Summit: that if the European Council in December 2004 decides that Turkey has met certain criteria on economic and political reform and has made progress on the resolution of regional disputes, “the EU will open negotiations without delay.” Despite continuing disagreements with Ankara over Cyprus and the Aegean, Greek opinion leaders across the political spectrum are convinced that Greece’s long-term interests are best served by Turkey’s successfully fulfilling the requirements for European Union membership.
In conclusion, the Greek approach aimed at bringing into the framework of Euro-Turkish relations problems like the Cyprus Question (regarding the island’s accession as well as the political problem) and issues regarding Greek-Turkish relations, as well as questions such as human and minority rights and democratic reforms within Turkey. Turkey’s attempt to confront all these issues is to be monitored by the appropriate EU mechanisms within a strict timetable.

05-08.12.2004 / EUROPEAN INTEGRATION I

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